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Questioning the Practice of Pretrial Detention: Some Empirical Evidence from Philidelphia - Goldkamp 1983

In response to the lawsuit Jackson v. Hendrick over jail conditions, the Court of Common Please set forth conditions to address substandard conditions, including what came to be known as the Jackson Rule - "prompt review for release of all defendants held on $1,500 bail (only $150 bail in actual...

Questioning the Practice of Pretrial Detention_ Some Empirical Ev.pdf


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Alaska's Pretrial Transformation - CJI 2018

Alaska’s new pretrial system limits the use of monetary bail and promotes greater consideration of a defendant’s risk of pretrial failure in release decisions. A pretrial risk assessment provides judges with objective information about the likelihood that a defendant will commit a new crime or...

Alaska's Pretrial Transformation - CJI 2018.pdf


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Interventions over Predictions: Reframing the Ethical Debate for Actuarial Risk Assessment - Barabas et al. 2017

Abstract: Actuarial risk assessments might be unduly perceived as a neutral way to counteract implicit bias and increase the fairness of decisions made at almost every juncture of the criminal justice system, from pretrial release to sentencing, parole and probation. In recent times these...


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Pretrial Risk Assessment: Improving Public Safety and Fairness in Pretrial Decision-Making - Federal Sentencing Reporter 2015

This is an article published in the Federal Sentencing Reporter and authored by Anne Milgram, Alexander M. Holsinger, Marie Vannostrand, & Matthew W. Alsdorf. The issue this was published within is titled "The Risk Assessment Era: An Overdue Debate". #PretrialAssessment


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The Intuitive-Override Model: Nudging Judges Toward Pretrial Risk Assessment Instruments - DeMichele et al. 2018

Abstract: The development, implementation, and use of risk assessments are some of the most important and controversial issues facing criminal justice systems today. The recent push for judges to use risk assessments in their pretrial release decision making has met with resistance on several...


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What Do Criminal Justice Professionals Think About Risk Assessment at Pretrial? - DeMichele et al. 2018

Abstract : Judicial decisions about whether to release or detain defendants are typically made quickly and include some level of input from other courtroom actors (i.e., prosecutors, defenders, and pretrial staff). There has recently been a push to provide more structure to pretrial decision...


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The Public Safety Assessment: A Re-Validation and Assessment of Predictive Utility and Differential Prediction by Race and Gender in Kentucky - DeMichele et al. 2018

Abstract: In this paper, we assess the predictive validity and differential prediction by race and gender of one pretrial risk assessment, the Public Safety Assessment (PSA). The PSA was developed with support from the Laura and John Arnold Foundation (LJAF) to reduce the burden placed on...


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Bail Reviewed: Report of the Court Observation Project - Maryland Office of the Public Defender 2018

The Pretrial Court Observation Project was designed to educate community members about the pretrial process, while helping gather important data at the critical time of the recent implementation of a Maryland Court Rule change. This report documents the observations and findings of sixty-four...

Bail Reviewed- Report of the Court Observation Project - Maryland Office of the Public Defender 2018.pdf


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Criminal Justice Reform Report to the Governor and the Legislature for Calendar Year 2017 - New Jersey Judiciary 2018

This report provides information regarding the implementation of these various aspects of Criminal Justice Reform (CJR). It also quantifies, from several different perspectives, the statistical results of CJR after one year of operation. The initial sections examine the impact of the risk...

Criminal Justice Reform Report to the Governor and the Legislature for Calendar Year 2017 - New Jersey Judiciary 2018.pdf


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Yakima County, Washington Pretrial Justice System Improvements: Pre- and Post- Implementation Analysis - Brooker 2017

Executive Summary This report was prepared for Yakima County stakeholders as part of the Smart Pretrial Demonstration Initiative, a project of the Bureau of Justice Assistance led by the Pretrial Justice Institute. The author of the report was the Technical Assistance Team Leader assigned to...

Yakima Count WA Pretrial Justice System Improvements- Pre- and Post- Implementation Analysis - Brooker 2017.pdf


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Assessing Risk Assessment in Action - Stevenson 2017

Abstract Recent years have seen a rush towards evidence-based tools in criminal justice. As part of this movement, many jurisdictions have adopted actuarial risk assessment to supplement or replace the ad-hoc decisions of judges. Proponents of risk assessment tools claim that they can...


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Trends in State Courts- Fines, Fees, and Bail Practices- Challenges and Opportunities - NCSC 2017

The focus of the 2017 edition of Trends in State Courts is “Fines, Fees, and Bail Practices: Challenges and Opportunities.” Several articles herein address what states and municipalities are doing to confront the effect of fines, fees, and bail practices on the poor. #Bail #RacialJustice ...

Trends in State Courts- Fines, Fees, and Bail Practices- Challenges and Opportunities - NCSC 2017.pdf


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Demystifying Risk Assessment: Key Principles and Controversies - Center for Court Innovation 2017

This essay from the Center for Court Innovation seeks to grapple with some "big picture" questions surrounding risk assessment, with an eye toward bridging the worlds of research and practice. The authors aimed to provide an easy-to-read overview of the latest social science (to the extent this...

Demystifying Risk Assessment- Key Principles and Controversies - CCI 2017.pdf


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Criminal Investigation & Adjudication Committee Report - North Carolina Commission on the Administration of Law & Justice 2017

Improving pretrial justice is a primary are of this report from North Carolina Commission on the Administration of Law & Justice. The Committee recommends that North Carolina carry out a pilot project to implement and assess legal- and evidence- based pretrial justice practices. The recommended...

Criminal Investigation and Adjudication Committee Report - NCCALJ 2017.pdf


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Liberty and Justice: Pretrial Practices in Texas - Texas A&M 2017

In most Texas counties, ability to pay financial bail determines which defendants will be released until adjudication of criminal charges. Increasingly, however, policymakers, judges, and other stakeholders are asking whether release based on a defendant’s individualized risk might be a better...

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The Public Safety Assessment – Court Analysis of Race and Gender - Arnold Foundation 2014

This publications looks at whether the Public Safety Assessment – Court (PSA-Court) risk assessment has a discriminatory impact on minorities and women. The research found that the tool is both racially neutral and gender neutral. In other words, it accurately classifies defendants’ risk levels...

PSA-Court Race Gender 2014.pdf


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Partnership in Pretrial Justice - IACP 2016

A Law Enforcement Leader's Guide to Understanding and Engaging in Meaningful Front-End Justice System Change. This Toolkit offers information and resources to help law enforcement leaders form partnerships, support policies and practices to improve justice outcomes for all stakeholders, and keep...

Partnership in Pretrial Justice - IACP 2016.pdf


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The New Jersey Pretrial Justice Manual - 2016

This Manual is designed to give practitioners the guidance needed to achieve pretrial release for clients. It tells the story of how New Jersey came to reform its system of pretrial release and detention. It also presents the new risk assessment instrument and a decision making framework, which...

The New Jersey Pretrial Justice Manual - 2016.pdf


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Pretrial Risk Assessment: Perpetuating or Disrupting Racial Bias?

Addressing bias in risk assessment is critical to safe, fair, and effective pretrial systems. On this webcast, Dr. Marie VanNostrand discusses strategies for building risk assessments without race and gender bias, and recent revisions to the popular Virginia Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument...


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Race and Gender Neutral Pretrial Risk Assessment, Release Recommendations, and Supervision: VPRAI and Praxis Revised - Luminosity 2016

A study was done on the effectiveness of Virginia’s pretrial risk assessment tool (VPRAI) and the PRAXIS test, and the impact they have on pretrial cases and a judge’s decision in sentencing a defendant. The Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services requested further analysis of the...

Race and Gender Neutral Pretrial Risk Assessment - Luminosity 2016.pdf