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Support for Pretrial Justice Reform: African-American Poll 2018

A poll commissioned by the Pretrial Justice Institute in partnership with the National Urban League shows that African-American voters think there should be fewer arrests for some offenses, more support services in the community, and a system focused on public safety—not on ability to pay money...

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Unequal Treatment: Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Miami-Dade Criminal Justice - ACLU Florida Greater Miami 2018

Analyzing data on all adult criminal defendants from 2010 to 2015, this report examines individual and neighborhood racial and ethnic disparities across multiple decision points within Miami-Dade County’s criminal justice system including: arrest, bond and pretrial detention, charging and...

Unequal Treatment- Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Miami-Dade Criminal Justice - ACLU Florida 2018.PDF


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Frequency of Signature Bonds in Dane County Criminal Cases: 2012-2016 - Judge Nicholas McNamara 2018

This report was submitted to the Public Protection & Judiciary Committee (PP&J) of the Dane County Board of Supervisors from Judge Nicholas J. McNamara. The Dane County Board of Supervisors is the Legislative branch of the county government in Dane County, Wisconsin. One of the County...

Frequency of Signature Bonds in Dane County Criminal Cases- 2012-2016 - Judge Nicholas McNamara 2018.pdf


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Lucas County Ohio April 2018 Update - Safety and Justice Challenge 2018

This is an update report from Lucas County, Ohio, from April, 2018. The Lucas County Safety and Justice Challenge Mission Statement reads as follows: Lucas County is committed to working collaboratively toward a safer, healthier, and more just community through implementation of successful...

Lucas County Ohio April 2018 Update - Safety and Justice Challenge 2018.pdf


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From Bondage to Bail Bonds: Putting a Price on Freedom in New Orleans - The Data Center 2018

This essay examines the extent to which money bail in New Orleans is a descendant of slavery and subsequent practices of racial exploitation. It describes bail and related practices across the city’s 300-year history, identifying echoes in the present-day regime of money bail. It then explains...

From Bondage to Bail Bonds- Putting a Price on Freedom in New Orleans - The Data Center 2018.pdf


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Racial Bias in Bail Decisions - Arnold, Dobbie & Yang 2018

This paper develops a test for identifying racial bias in bail decisions. The analysis is motivated using Becker’s model of racial bias, which posits that if bail judges are racially unbiased, rates of pretrial misconduct will be the same for marginal white and marginal black defendants. If...

Racial Bias in Bail Decisions - Arnold, Dobbie & Yang 2018.pdf


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Pretrial Risk Assessment Can Produce Race-Neutral Results - PJI 2017

The integrity and effectiveness of pretrial justice depends on the court’s ongoing commitment to recognizing and eliminating bias in its decision making. Pretrial justice systems based on money bail and subjective decision-making criteria produce unacceptable racially disparate results....

Pretrial Risk Assessment Can Produce Race-Neutral Results - PJI 2017.pdf


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Trends in State Courts- Fines, Fees, and Bail Practices- Challenges and Opportunities - NCSC 2017

The focus of the 2017 edition of Trends in State Courts is “Fines, Fees, and Bail Practices: Challenges and Opportunities.” Several articles herein address what states and municipalities are doing to confront the effect of fines, fees, and bail practices on the poor. #Bail #RacialJustice ...

Trends in State Courts- Fines, Fees, and Bail Practices- Challenges and Opportunities - NCSC 2017.pdf


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Examining Racial Disparities in Criminal Case Outcomes among Indigent Defendants in San Francisco - Penn Law 2017

In this report, the authors document that Black, White and Latinx indigent defendants in San Francisco have substantially different experiences during the criminal adjudication process. Specifically, defendants of color are more likely to be held in custody during their cases, which tend to take...

Examining Racial Disparties in Crimincal Case Outcomes among Indignent Defendants in San Francisco - Penn Law 2017.pdf


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Selling Off Our Freedom - Color of Change 2017

Discover the rarely heard and even less understood story of how the bail industry has corrupted our constitutional freedoms for profit. Read Color Of Change’s bail industry report, supported by ACLU’s Campaign for Smart Justice #RacialJustice #Bail

Selling Off Our Freedom - Color of Change 2017.pdf


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Bail Reform: New Directions for Pretrial Detention and Release - Penn Law 2017

Our current pretrial system imposes high costs on both the people who are detained pretrial and the taxpayers who foot the bill. These costs have prompted a surge of bail reform around the country. Reformers seek to reduce pretrial detention rates, as well as racial and socio- economic...

Bail Reform- New Directions for Pretrial Detention and Release - Penn Law 2017.pdf


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The Public Safety Assessment – Court Analysis of Race and Gender - Arnold Foundation 2014

This publications looks at whether the Public Safety Assessment – Court (PSA-Court) risk assessment has a discriminatory impact on minorities and women. The research found that the tool is both racially neutral and gender neutral. In other words, it accurately classifies defendants’ risk levels...

PSA-Court Race Gender 2014.pdf


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Pretrial Risk Assessment: Perpetuating or Disrupting Racial Bias?

Addressing bias in risk assessment is critical to safe, fair, and effective pretrial systems. On this webcast, Dr. Marie VanNostrand discusses strategies for building risk assessments without race and gender bias, and recent revisions to the popular Virginia Pretrial Risk Assessment Instrument...


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Prosecution and Racial Justice in New York County Technical Report - DOJ 2014

Due to minority overrepresentation in the criminal justice system, this study was conducted to analyze racial and ethnic disparities throughout the pretrial process in New York using data from the New York County District Attorney’s Office. Methodology and data are described, as well as...

Prosecution and Racial Justice in New York County Technical Report - DOJ 2014.pdf


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COMPAS Risk Scales, Demonstrating Accuracy, Equity, and Predictive Parity - Northpointe 2016

This report discusses Northpointe’s technical analysis refuting the study done by ProPublica claiming the COMPAS Risk Scales are racially bias. Through review of the original statistical methods and Northpointe’s own data analysis, it was determined that the original study made statistical...

COMPAS Risk Scales, Demonstrating Accuracy, Equity, and Predictive Parity - Northpointe 2016.pdf


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Race & Pretrial Risk Assessment - PJI

This document discusses the ways in which racial bias is virtually eliminated in the design and validation of pretrial risk assessment tools. #RacialJustice #PretrialAssessment ​

Race & Pretrial Risk Assessment - PJI.pdf


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Prosecution and Racial Justice - Vera 2009

An assessment program to determine if racial bias occurs in prosecutorial decisions was implemented in three major counties across the country – Milwaukee County, Mecklenburg County, and San Diego County. This report discusses the program as well as the findings from the data that was collected...

Prosecution and Racial Justice - Vera 2009.pdf


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"Give Us Free": Addressing Racial Disparities in Bail Determinations - Legislation and Public Policy 2014

This article argues that the bail determination process is a racially unbalanced system due to lack of resources, information, and uniformity along with the improper considerations of the defendants’ race and financial status. This has led to racial disparities as well as jail overcrowding in...

Give Us Free-Addressing Racial Disparities in Bail Determinations - Legislation and Public Policy 2014.pdf



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Racial Bias in the Judicial System - Minnesota Supreme Court Task Force 1993

This report discusses the results surrounding racial bias in the judicial system found by the Minnesota Supreme Court Task Force. The task force researched problems including racial bias in the criminal justice process, access to representation, and cultural diversity/awareness in the system and...

Racial Bias in the Judicial System - Minnesota Supreme Court Task Force 1993.pdf